World History

c.1900 to the present



Apartheid: Apartheid was a system of racial segregation in South Africa by the National Party government. Non-white political representation was abolished in 1970, depriving black people of their citizenship. The last of the apartheid laws were repealed in 1990, but the true end of apartheid is widely considered to be the election of Nelson Mandela in 1994.

Antiziganism: Antiziganism is discrimination against the Romani people, commonly known as "gypsies". The Romani suffer widespread racial hatred and discrimination in modern-day Europe, particularly in Eastern Europe where segregated schools are still common. Romani were among the groups targeted and exterminated by Nazi Germany.

Bolsheviks: The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, and workers' Soviets overthrew the Provisional government in Petrograd during the October Revolution of 1917.

Hunger Plan: The Hunger Plan was put into effect by the Nazi government to ensure that Germany had first priority of food supplies at the expense of German-occupied Soviet territories. In his diaries, Goebbels wrote of the Hunger Plan: "before Germany starved, it would be the turn of a number of other people". The Hunger Plan is now considered an act of mass murder.

Kronstadt Rebellion: The Kronstadt Rebellion (1921) was an unsuccessful revolt of Russian sailors, soldiers and civilians against the Bolshevik Party. The harsh treatment of the rebels, many of whom were killed or sent to Siberia as slaves, is said to be a major turning point in the Russian Communist Party – when the party turned from socialism to malignant fascism.

Siege of Leningrad: The Siege of Leningrad during World War II proved to be one of the most destructive sieges in European history, causing unthinkable devastation to the city of Leningrad (now known as Saint Petersburg). Over a 1.5 million civilians in the city perished, most from starvation after the food supply was exhausted.

Vladimir Lenin: Peace! Land! Bread! was the battle cry of Vladimir Lenin during the 1917 October Revolution that would overthrow Tsar Nicholas II. Lenin's promises appealed to the people of Russia who, in the chaos of WWI and the slavery of serfdom, were tired, hungry, and disenfranchised.