World History

c.1900 to the present



European Economic Community: The strongest opponent of The United Kingdom’s entry into the European Common Market was France. The United Kingdom applied for entry into the European Economic Community in 1961, along with Denmark, Ireland, and Norway. The UK's entry was vetoed by French president Charles de Gaulle who believed that British membership in the community was only a Trojan Horse for U.S. influence in European economic affairs. In 1967, the four countries reapplied and with Georges Pompidou succeeding de Gaulle as president of France, the veto was lifted.

Kristallnacht: Kristallnacht "crystal night" was a series of attacks by Nazi stormtroopers and civilians against Jewish communities in Germany and Austria. Jewish homes, businesses, synagogues, and hospitals were destroyed. Many Jews were killed and thousands more were arrested and sent to concentration camps.

Second Boer War: The Second Boer War resulted in the conversion of South Africa into a British colony. The Second Boer War (1899-1902) was fought between the British Empire and the Boers (farmers of Dutch descent) in the territories now called South Africa. The war ended with the conversion of the Boer territories of Transvaal and the Orange Free State into British territories. The Boer Wars are notable for being one of the first instances of concentration camps being used by Europeans. The British interned thousands of Boer families and civilians in camps, where many died of starvation and disease.

Slobodan Milosevic: President of Serbia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Slobodan Milosevic was indicted for crimes against humanity for his involvement in genocides committed in connection with the wars in Kosovo, Bosnia, and Croatia. He died in his cell in 2006 before being convicted.

Tension between European nations and the United States: One reason there was tension between European nations and the United States during the late 1970s and early 1980s was the economic rivalry between them. Some tension existed in regards to foreign policy between the United States and Europe during the late 1970s and 1980s as a result of the economic rivalry between them. Additionally, since the 1940s there had been several events that had led to weakening trust between the two. Events include: the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) and other events of the Cold War, the US involvement in Vietnam, the outreach of West Germany to East Germany and much more.

Women during World War II: Women served an indispensable role in World War II, taking on many jobs that were seen as traditionally masculine and dangerous. In addition to serving as radio transmitters, nurses, and secretaries, women also served as machinists in factories which produced weapons, auxiliary police, mechanics, and much more. In Britain, women's war effort was acknowledged with the phrase "the Home Front", indicating that women were also taking part in the war against Hitler. Women could also volunteer for combat duty in anti-aircraft carriers, which shot down many Nazi planes. Women also served high-danger roles such as secret agent and underground radio operator and, in France and Eastern Europe, participated in resistance movements.

Zyklon B: Zyklon B was a cyanide-based pesticide used to murder human beings in the gas chambers of Nazi extermination camps. Bruno Tesch, one of the co-inventors of Zyklon B, was executed by the British government for his role in the Holocaust.