Columbian Exchange: The cross-cultural exchange that developed along the Great Circuit is known as the Columbian Exchange. This was named after Columbus. Goods like tobacco, corn, peppers, chocolate, potatoes, tomatoes, beans, pine apples, sweet potatoes, pumpkins and squash were moved from the Americas to Europe. Animals like horses, pigs and cows and crops like wheat, barley, sugar cane, melons and grapes moved from Europe to the Americas. During the period of 1450 to 1750, a global economy was created because of increased trading activities. Silver was circulated from the Americas. European traders engaged in trading activities in Asia and transported goods from one Asian country to another Asian country in the Indian Ocean region.
Explosives: Explosives were invented by the Chinese. However, the Europeans used the explosives, guns and gunpowder to consolidate their dominance and spread their empire.
Chinese ships: In terms of the size, the Chinese ships were very huge. However, the Europeans during the 1450 to 1750 built ships using newer technology by giving their ships round hulls and deep drafts. This made the European ships travel the long distances across the Atlantic Ocean.
European progress: Cartography is the art and science developed by the European sailors and explorers using which they recorded the new territories that they discovered on maps. The Europeans made great progress in making maps accurately. They created a new style of map called the Mercator Projection which was accurate for the middle ranges of route navigation which the European sailors were following but distorted land size in far northern and far southern areas. During the 1450 to 1750, the Europeans improved on the astrolabe which was an Arab invention and the astrolabe helped the captain of a ship to know his distance (North or South) from the equator. The Arabs learned about the compass from the Chinese and the Europeans absorbed the technology of the compass from the Arabs.