Connection of Eastern and Western hemispheres: During c. 1450 to c. 1750, Eastern and Western hemispheres were more connected due to advancement in technology in the field of sea travel. This resulted in increased trade between countries, formation of new financial centers and new regional markets because of increase in sea travel and people in Americas being more prone to diseases which was a result of germs being carried to that region. Sea-based travel in fact increased because more sea travel was possible which was encouraged by leaders of countries in regions who made attempts to move from eastern to western hemisphere via sea. Merchants and regions in the silk route, the Mediterranean and the India Ocean were very strong and prosperous in the period prior to c. 1450. However, during c. 1450 to c. 1750, Eastern and Western hemispheres were more connected due to advancement in technology in the field of sea travel. This resulted in dwindling of powers of the merchants and regions in the silk route, the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean.
Gunpowder Empires: The older civilizations in Asia and the Middle East made some new advances in the field of weaponry and thus were termed as gunpowder empires. They had issues like large territories to defend, internal communication and governance issues and problems with maintaining large armies to defend their borders. Thus the older civilizations in the Middle East and Asia though were weakened, they were not completely wiped out by the sea based European empires.
Travel across Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean: During c. 1450 to c. 1750, travel across the Atlantic Ocean and later across the Pacific Ocean was possible. Europeans were able to understand ocean current patterns more clearly. Prior to c. 1450, the Asian and Islamic regions indeed had good knowledge in the field of cartography and navigation. The Europeans improved on the existing knowledge in these areas to make advances in the field of travel over the oceans. Development of new technologies like revised maps and Astrolabe in Europe made the travel across the Oceans possible. Europeans were able to understand wind patterns more clearly. Europeans travelled across the North Atlantic via the activities of finding new area for settlement and fishing.
Chinese maritime activity: Admiral Zheng He of the Ming dynasty increased the official Chinese maritime in the Indian Ocean region with the voyages of the treasure fleets of China.