Constantinople: During the fourth crusade, issued by Pope Innocent III, Crusaders destroyed Constantinople. This was tragically ironic, given that the stated reason for crusades was to convert people to Christianity, and the people of Constantinople were already Christians. The Crusaders called their newly won Constantinople a “Latin Empire,” but this would only last around fifty years. This was further conflict between the churches of the east and the west.
Literature of the T’ang and Song dynasty: The difference between the literature of the T’ang Dynasty and the literature of the Song dynasty was in that the T’ang Dynasty was better at poetry. The T’ang Dynasty’s poetic aptitude made them unique. The Song Dynasty, which followed the T’ang, used their literature for more practical purposes, such as writing history and encyclopedias.
Pope Gregory IX: Pope Gregory IX started the Inquisition a few years following the Fourth Crusade. This was a formal persecution of nonbelievers and heretics. Punishments varied widely. The most notorious of these punishments were torture or execution, but could also be excommunication or exile.
Thomas Aquinas: Thomas Aquinas, a Christian in the thirteenth century argued that God gave both faith and reason and therefore they are not in conflict with one another. This was during a time where many Christian thinkers began placing more emphasis on reason. The Church sometimes felt threatened by this, which led to them making decrees on what was allowable Church doctrine and what was heresy.
The T’ang: The T’ang were especially good at science and philosophy, architecture and building transportation systems. They were a very advanced dynasty, capable in all of the fields mentioned above, and also in art, silk and porcelain making, and many other things.