QVprep Microbiology Lessons

Bacterial Physiology



ATP: Adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) molecules are the energy currency of the cell and releases that energy through the hydrolysis of phosphate residues. ATP is the energy currency of the cell, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic. The energy is maintained in its high energy phosphate bonds. When these are hydrolyzed, the energy is released.

Catabolism: The decomposition of large molecules such as a polysaccharide into smaller ones like a monosaccharide is referred to as catabolism. Catabolic reactions involve the breaking of bonds, which release energy and result in the formation of smaller molecules. Synonyms include hydrolysis and exothermic reactions.

Catabolic Reactions: Catabolic reactions involve the addition of water to break covalent bonds. In breaking bonds, energy is released. The opposite of this reaction is a synthesis or dehydration reaction.

Cations: Atoms that lose electrons gain a positive charge, as they possess more protons than electrons. The name for a positively charged atom is a cation.

Denaturation: A change in a proteins shape and resultant loss of its activity (ability to function) is called denaturation. A proteins structure is inherently tied to its ability to function. When its shape is lost, so is its function. The loss or change in shape is called “denaturation”.