QVprep Microbiology Lessons

Bacterial Anatomy



Binary fission: The majority of bacteria undergo reproduction through binary fission. Binary fission is a method in which the DNA is replicated and the copies segregate, the cell elongates, and a cross-wall forms thereby dividing the elongated cell into mother and daughter cell.

DNA of the bacterial genome: The DNA in the bacterial genome is not Linear. Animal DNA is linear; prokaryotic DNA consists of ~8,000 genes that must be compacted in a 2-3µm cell.

Lysozyme: Lysozyme is an enzyme in tears, saliva, etc. that is a part of the innate immune defenses against microorganisms. This enzyme is effective against the cell wall. Lysozyme is capable of digesting the NAG-NAM bonds in peptidoglycan; this enzyme is more effective against Gram positive bacteria as the Gram negative cell wall is protected by the LPS.

Outer membrane of a gram negative bacteria: Lipid A, core polysaccharide, and O polysaccharide are the components of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram negative bacteria, which is also called the outer membrane. The outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria is also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Organelles: Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, the golgi apparatus, and lysosomes may be collectively be referred to as organelles. Organelles are “miniature organs” in the eukaryotic cell.