QVprep Biology Lessons

Kingdom Monera, Prokaryotes, Autotrophs and Heterotrophs, Symbiotic relationships, Commensalism, Obligate aerobes, Obligate anaerobes, Reproduction, Two distinct groups within Monera



Prokaryotes: All organisms in the Kingdom Monera are prokaryotes. They lack nuclei and organelles and most of their cell walls are made of peptidoglycan except in the case of the Archaebacteria. Most of the prokaryotes utilize flagella for movement.

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs: Digestion is extracellular and nutrients are absorbed into the cell. Autotrophs manufacture their own organic compounds. Heterotrophs obtain their energy by feeding on other organic substances.

Saprophytes: Saprophytes, a special kind of heterotrophs, obtain energy by feeding on decaying matter.

Symbiotic relationships: Some bacteria live in symbiotic relationships with other organisms.

Parasitism: In parasitism, harm is caused to the host

Commensalism: In commensalism, one organism benefits while the other is unaffected. In mutualism, both organisms benefit. Circulation and digestion occurs through diffusion.

Obligate aerobes: In obligate aerobes, the prokaryotes must have oxygen to live.

Obligate anaerobes: In obligate anaerobes, the organisms cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. And in facultative anaerobes they can survive with or without oxygen.

Reproduction: Most organisms in the Kingdom Monera reproduce through binary fission asexually or through conjugation sexually.

Two distinct groups within Monera: Recently, biologists have identified two distinct groups within Monera. A) The Archaebacteria have cell walls that lack peptidoglycan and ribosomes similar to eukaryotes. B) The Eubacteria are characterized by how they metabolize resources, motility, and shape. The three basic shapes are cocci (spherical), bacilli (rod shaped), and spirillum (spirals).