Modern biotechnology: Modern biotechnology deals more with the treatment of ailments and alteration of organisms for better cures, products and therapies. Proteins were discovered in the year 1830. In 1859, Darwin published his revolutionary book, Origin of Species. Gregor Mendel, considered the father of modern genetics, discovers the laws of heredity. Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch provided the basis for research in microbiology. These numerous advancements allowed modern biotechnology to rise.
Gene therapy: Gene therapy is the practice of injecting genes into patients to replace defective copies. Gene therapy has been moderately successful and uses viruses, liposomes and other vehicles to deliver the gene to the nucleus.
Structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): With the advent of X-ray diffraction, Watson and Crick discovered the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) as a double helix, considered to be one of the most important discoveries in biotechnology.
Other major advances in biotechnology: Other major advances in biotechnology that followed include Nirenberg and Khorana deciphering the codons of 20 amino acids and Borlaug successfully increasing the yield of wheat by 70 percent.
Cloning: Cloning involves transfer of nuclear material from one cell into another enucleated cell to give rise to an entire organism that resembles the nucleus (DNA) donor. Dolly the sheep was created through cloning.
Conclusion: Biotechnology is a rapidly growing field. The use of biological organisms and processes for the benefit of humans has been in practice for thousands of years. Recombinant DNA technology and genetic engineering is producing new and unique varieties of solutions.