QVprep Biology Lessons

Introduction to Biotechnology



Introduction to Biotechnology: Biotechnology is the use of biology to solve problems and make useful products. The most prominent area of biotechnology is the production of therapeutic proteins and other drugs through genetic engineering.

Brief history of biotechnology: People have been using biological processes to make bread, alcoholic beverages, and cheese and to preserve dairy products. For more than a decade, the biotechnology industry was dominated by recombinant DNA technology, or genetic engineering. This technique consists of splicing the gene for a useful protein into cells like yeast, bacteria, or mammalian cells in culture to produce bulk quantities. One of the major advantages of recombinant DNA products is that it is not contaminated with pathogens and does not result in allergies. In the year 1982, recombinant insulin became the first protein to be produced through genetic engineering.

Genomics: Genomics is the study of genes constituting an organism’s genome. Proteomics deals with the study of proteins and gene products. Biological information and computational technology is merged to form a discipline called bioinformatics. The study of exploring the use of microscopic equipment that can enter the human body is nanotechnology